Navigational instruments refers to the instruments used by nautical navigators and pilots as tools of their trade. The purpose of navigation is to ascertain the present position and to determine the speed, direction etc. to arrive at the port or point of destination.
An Electronic Chart Display and Information System is a geographic information system used for nautical navigation that complies with International Maritime Organization regulations as an alternative to paper nautical charts. IMO refers to similar systems not meeting the regulations as Electronic Chart Systems.
A fibre optic gyroscope senses changes in orientation using the Sagnac effect, thus performing the function of a mechanical gyroscope. However its principle of operation is instead based on the interference of light which has passed through a coil of optical fibre, which can be as long as 5 km. A FOG provides extremely precise rotational rate information, in part because of its lack of cross-axis sensitivity to vibration, acceleration, and shock. Unlike the classic spinning-mass gyroscope or resonant/mechanical gyroscopes, the FOG has no moving parts and doesn’t rely on inertial resistance to movement. Hence, the FOG is an excellent alternative to a mechanical gyroscope. Because of their intrinsic reliability, FOGs are used for high performance space applications, hydrographical surveys, mining and military inertial navigation systems.
Marine radars are X band or S band radars on ships, used to detect other ships and land obstacles, to provide bearing and distance for collision avoidance and navigation at sea. They are electronic navigation instruments that use a rotating antenna to sweep a narrow beam of microwaves around the water surface surrounding the ship to the horizon, detecting targets by microwaves reflected from them, displaying a picture of the ship’s surroundings on a display screen. A Radar has a flat antenna that spins. It emits a signal, then listens back for that signal. The signal bounces back at varying times based on what it may be bouncing off of.
Radar is a vital component for safety at sea and near the shore. Captains need to be able to maneuver their ships within feet in the worst of conditions and to be able to navigate “blind”, when there is no visibility at night or due to bad weather